Research, Development and Innovation

3 How to write a scientific paper


In scientific writing, IMRAD or IMRaD (/ˈɪmræd/) (Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion)[1] is a common organizational structure (a document format). IMRaD is the most prominent norm for the structure of a scientific journal article of the original research type.

Original research articles are typically structured in this basic order:

  1. Introduction – Why was the study undertaken? What was the research question, the tested hypothesis or the purpose of the research?
  2. Methods – When, where, and how was the study done? What materials were used or who was included in the study groups (patients, etc.)?
  3. Results – What answer was found to the research question; what did the study find? Was the tested hypothesis true?
  4. Discussion – What might the answer imply and why does it matter? How does it fit in with what other researchers have found? What are the perspectives for future research?

How to start (and complete) a research paper:

  1. Choose a topic.
  2. Read and keep records.
  3. Form a thesis.
  4. Create a mind map or outline.
  5. Read again.
  6. Rethink your thesis.
  7. Draft the body.
  8. Revise.
  9. Add the beginning and end.
  10. Proofread and edit.

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