8 Revisión de la literatura

Según el artículo A Systems Approach to Conduct an Effective Literature Review in Support of Information Systems Research (2006), una revisión de la literatura es:

Hart (1998) defined the literature review as “the use of ideas in the literature to justify the particular approach to the topic, the selection of methods, and demonstration that this research contributes something new” (p. 1). He also noted that for the literature review, “quality means appropriate breadth and depth, rigor and consistency, clarity and brevity, and effective analysis and synthesis” (Hart, 1998, p. 1). J. Shaw (1995) noted that the process of the review should “explain how one piece of research builds on another” (p. 326). Webster and Watson (2002) defined an effective literature review as one that “creates a firm foundation for advancing knowledge. It facilitates theory development, closes areas where a plethora of research exists, and uncovers areas where research is needed” (p. 13).

Una revisión de la literatura debe incluir las diferentes características:

  1. methodologically analyze and synthesize quality literature,
  2. provide a firm foundation to a research topic,
  3. provide a firm foundation to the selection of research methodology, and
  4. demonstrate that the proposed research contributes something new to the overall body of knowledge or advances the research field’s knowledge-base.

En el proceso de realización de una revisión de la literatura, un paso que consume mucho tiempo es la lectura. En este artículo se proporcionan algunas técnicas para ayudar a una lectura activa:

  1. Keep an annotated copy of all the articles, book chapters, or conference proceedings you read in both hardcopy and electronic format. It is unbelievably frustrating to need to refer back to an article and find you do not have ready access to it.
  2. Highlight everything in the article that is applicable to your research, even if you don’t think you will use the material. It is almost impossible to tell exactly what direction research will take, and it can be very frustrating and time consuming to try to re-locate information you are almost certain you found in a given paper.
  3. Write notes to yourself about the article you are reading regarding issues, thoughts, or general comments such as “nice methodology for …”, “interesting definition of…,” etc.
  4. Write a brief (one to two paragraph(s)) annotated bibliography entry that encapsulates the essential points applicable to your research derived from the article. It is important to note that the annotated bibliography is specific to your research and is not the same as the abstract for the article, which summarizes the entire study.
  5. As one reads literature, be sure to look for and circle any terms or expressions that might serve as keywords that would facilitate the forward or backward searching described earlier.
  6. Remember, it is important to place each article in the context of the body of knowledge by identifying the applicable model(s), construct(s), theory(ies), and/or literature stream(s) (see section “Cognitive/construct-level” above). Annotate the applicable model(s), etc. on the front of the article.